John Ramo was driving and Anthony Leisure, a brother of Paulie Leisure, sat next to him, holding a model airplane remote control. He was too well acquainted with the vagaries of the underworld not to. "These f------ guys, we'll eat 'em like hamburgers. It was the first insight investigators got into the violence and it opened new doors for them. St. Louis, MO 63102, George-Levi Gayle, Mariana Odio-Zuniga, and Prasanthi Ramakrishnan, The Spring and Summer 2021 Leisure Times is now available and registration is open. The bombing might have curtailed temporarily Leisure's quest for control of the underworld, but it only made unquenchable his thirst for vengeance against the Michaels' and the Mafia, particularly Vitale. On the night of November 29, 1988, near the impoverished Marlborough neighborhood in south Kansas City, an explosion at a construction site killed six of the citys firefighters. You know, by rights I should've been dead. Sold - 1019 Leisure, Saint Louis, MO - $260,000. The lawyer who represented me was on drugs. That he was well experienced in the art of murder was brought home to FBI agents who monitored a conversation in which he bragged: "But I'll tell you one thing you can take all these people around here, put 'em all together and put everything they did, and this is true I killed more people than all of 'em put together.". Five months later, the purging of enemies from Local 110 began. All three shared authority in many of the construction unions, the most important of which were Laborers' Union Locals 42, 53 and 110 in St. Louis. Sports He decided Massud would be sacrificed. Off-market: Single Family home, $335,000, 3 Bd, 3 Ba, 2,424 Sqft, $138/Sqft, at 11108 Leisure Ln, Saint Louis, MO 63146 Getting' away from us is like walkin' between the raindrops.". Over the course of a week, they tried three times, but each time the door had been relocked. It was time for Leisure to act decisively and fill the vacuum. View 42 photos for 1027 Leisure Ln, Saint Louis, MO 63146, a 3 bed, 2 bath, 1,479 Sq. It was the first insight investigators got into the violence and it opened new doors for them. Like the others, his family went into hiding. Police theorized he was silenced to prevent him from striking a deal with the FBI. When the Mafia boss had placed him in a position of power in Local 42 in October 1979, he immediately challenged Leisure's influence and announced his intention to hit one of his associates. Using a linear regression framework, as a first cut, the differential effects of education, race, gender, marital status, and the presence of children on housework hours are estimated. He fit the description of a man seen in the parking garage shortly before the explosion. Leisure Living Community is an apartment community located in St. Louis City County and the 63112 ZIP Code. Leisure was sentenced to life in prison without parole. He was near death when surgeons amputated parts of both legs and repaired the serious injuries to his face. Termine had turned traitor and was cooperating in the prosecution of Kornhardt in an effort to get a light sentence for a home invasion in Illinois. He and his brother, Anthony, and their cousin, David Leisure, were convicted. According to Ronald Lawrence, both men are retired, "at least from their legitimate jobs." It belonged to a probation and parole agent. 12:10 p. m. Charles Lowe parked the tow truck two blocks from the church. That's why I told you, it's marked on yourforehead. With the last defendant, Robert Carbaugh, the jury was unable to reach a verdict. If nothing else, Leisure believed in democracy. Why We Recommend This Activity Stoneking told him that he knew a man in Florida who could supply one. The bombing of Spica 10 months earlier had been the defining moment in his effort to gain control of the underworld. Mafia Insider He was indicted for capital murder in state court in Kornhardt's death and, like Carbaugh, pleaded guilty to second degree. Some insiders believed it might have been due to Trupiano's own gambling in which he lost more than won. Attorneys for David Leisure tried desperately to save their client. Random On April 14, 1983 eight members of the Leisure faction were indicted on state capital murder charges and federal racketeering charges. Philadelphia Broderick, Loewe and Flynn drove to the farm. Leisure decided to wait until Giordano, terminally ill with cancer, died. Michaels owned a farm about 100 miles south of St. Louis and the Leisures believed family members might be hiding there. For some time Giordano had been the overlord. This is in sharp contrast to the graduation rates for the Silent and Boomers-1 generations, which were generally stable across the two. Then news reports hinted that he also was cooperating with authorities. He coveted control of the St. Louis underworld and saw the Laborers' locals as an expedient to it. Couples where both spouses have completed some college or more have significantly lower divorce rates, as also documented by Lundberg, Pollak, and Stearns (2016). By then Stoneking was working undercover for the FBI. Ronald J. Broderick He, too, plea bargained and in return for his cooperation pleaded guilty to a RICO charge. They believed the case against Kornhardt was weak. He died after suffering a second heart attack at St. Anthony's Medical Center in south St. Louis County on October 22, 1997. "These f------ guys, we'll eat 'em like hamburgers. "We could still smell the burned dynamite on us. A few studies in the existing literature analyze leisure over generations and the life cycle. View 28 photos of this 3 bed, 3 bath, 1390 sqft. Later that day, he talked to Kowalski, who was surprised that Vitale knew the bomb had been activated with such a remote control. The judge sentenced him to eight years, five years of which were concurrent with the federal term. Some intelligence experts believed whatever dispute had caused the Michaels' bombing had been settled. It was the first time federal agents had ever heard of an underworld bookmaking operation running in the red. The St. Louis Family BY Allan May The Leisures and Trupiano Less than a year after Jimmy Michaels' murder, his supporters retaliated by planting a bomb under Paul Leisure's car outside his mother's home on Nottingham Avenue on August 11, 1981. Paul John "Paulie" Leisure, a Syrian who was a suspected contract killer, headed a small dissident, but deadly, group of gangsters. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) from 1968 to 2015, this article presents the first read on the behavior of Millennials as they complete their education, form their families, and transition into adulthood. David, however, in a mob rarity, was sentenced to death. In the 1970s, he sniffed glue and graduated to speed and cocaine. The charges would be handled in separate trials. In transcripts of recorded conversations, Trupiano was heard to say, "He got no respect, either from mob chapters or his own underlings." Easter Seals Disability Services. Now he knew the truth about Vitale. It was a popular event and the Lebanese cuisine was excellent. Although this is in contrast to the findings of Greenwood and Guner (2008) and Santos and Weiss (2016), it is in line with those of Gihleb and Lang (2016). But Vitale would make the death of his dear friend Jimmy Michaels his business. He won't live till tomorrow." 12:20 p. m. David Leisure alighted from the van, carrying an attache case. We can kill them both." Paulie Leisure had lived while a good man had died, he said. Their sources in the police department were keeping them well informed. He had promised Kornhardt a job in Local 42 and had paid $20,000 of his legal expenses. Like "Beans," he insulated himself. One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza Connect with the definitive source for global and local news. Milton R. "Russ" Schepp Not long after Paulie Leisure was bombed, Schepp disappeared. ", "But I'll tell you one thing you can take all these people around here, put 'em all together and put everything they, did, and this is true I killed more people than all of 'em put together. A few blocks from the church, Anthony activated the remote transmitter, but nothing happened. There's nothing wrong with a good blowtorch, too. That morning he did not use it. South Not only that, but not to execute a snitch was intolerable. He fulfilled a promise he had made to them in the beginning. The next morning, Oct. 16, David Leisure, wearing a gray wig, and Michael Kornhardt, another recent recruit, drove to the Mansion House parking garage. The awesome ability to grant life or deny it and to dominate the mob in St. Louis were aphrodisiacs to Leisure, arousing his passions to new heights. After picking up Kornhardt, Carbaugh realized he had forgotten his pistol. Putting their hands in the moving gears of a transmission was an option. Anthony and David Leisure asked him to take a ride with them and discuss his grand jury appearance. 3:05 p. m. Michaels and "Beans" left the church hall. This time it worked. He had an offer. Mob Hits He and his wife and their families immediately disappeared in the Witness Protection Program. Paulie, at the urging of his brother, decided to bomb Michaels. A state circuit court jury convicted him of two counts of first-degree assault in the shootings of John Michaels and Dennis Day. Shortly after 8 a. m., on Aug. 11, 1981, Paulie Leisure left his home in south St. Louis. I'm motivated because I wanna go out and kill.". It took David and Anthony Leisure only a few days to confirm what they had suspected all along, that the Michaels' family was responsible for Paulie's bombing. TM & 2015 Turner Entertainment Networks, Inc. A Time Warner Company. Amenities at the new WREC, which opened in November 2022, include a 4,000-square-foot recreation pool and a 25-meter lap pool. View details, map and photos of this single family property with 4 bedrooms and 3 total baths. The St. Louis Arc's Leisure department is offering numerous programs designed to promote socialization, meet new friends, learn new skills, enjoy yourself, and have fun. Now, Stoneking was convinced that Vitale wanted to set them up to be arrested with a bomb or to be killed. For each of these, trends over time as well as life-cycle profiles over generations are presented. Sadie Faheen, Michaels' sister, contributed a $250,000 war chest for the killing of all those responsible for her brother's death. Quality Inn & Suites Arnold - St Louis. In the morning of Oct. 15, 1981, David Leisure and Ramo drove to the parking garage. Carbaugh was found guilty in a second trial and sentenced to 20 years. He would give Stoneking $5,000 if he would have Kowalski bring a bomb to him in St. Louis. The Leisures frantically searched for him, but realized the shocking truth when they found his house abandoned. Broderick wanted to invade the house and assassinate him, but Anthony declined, saying they didn't know whom else might be there. Leisure is brought into the federal courthouse downtown on April 14, 1983, after his arrest in the gang war. A man mowing grass nearby frightened them off. This was not true for the Silent and Boomer generations. We got power structures. Bounties of $50,000 were placed on Paulie and Anthony Leisures' heads. We can kill them both." It would be the ultimate act of insurrection. "Let's hit 'em now. He turned on the two-way radio and listened intently for any messages. I don't feel I'm greedy or power hungry.". David Leisure saw the opportunity. Michaels' grandson was dismissed from his union position and his brother, Francis, later resigned. Not long afterwards, Paulie Leisure obtained a copy of a police report on the bombing. Leisure had him killed within weeks with a car bomb. On March 24, 1982 James A. Michaels III, another grandson of Jimmy Michaels, and Milton Russell Schepp, a former St. George, Missouri police chief, were charged with the Paul Leisure car bombing. He called for a vote and Massud's life was spared. St. Louis, MO 63114 Phone: (314) 961-2504 www.dsagsl.org. David had a source in the St. Louis Police Department who had identified Faheen and Issa as the bombers. The attorneys went on to state that he "was born into a poor family two months premature, wasn't toilet trained until age eight, dropped out of school in the third grade, and used alcohol and drugs as a child. Members Only He started the Leisures' downfall by telling about the Faheen hit. While the college graduation gap between White men and White women is more than the college graduation gap between Black men and Black women, this outcome reverses if individuals with some college and college graduates are combined. Later that afternoon, Faheen got behind the wheel of his car, inserted the key in the ignition and turned it. In addition to this, an Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of wages into explained and unexplained components is estimated to understand the changes in the gender wage gap. The St. Louis crime family,   also known as the Giordano crime family or St. Louis Mafia, is an Italian-American Mafia crime family based in St. Louis, Missouri, United States. The major changes across generations in divorce rates are primarily coming from Blacks and couples where at least one spouse has completed education of less than or equal to a high school diploma. Featured Documentary I ain't gonna take no back, seat to them. "Mafia bosses all over the country were very disturbed by it. It was to be the "war room" where murder could be planned away from prying eyes and ears. Moments later, a bomb threat was received by an employee of the motel where the jury had been sequestered. Similar trends exist across race. I told him I don't kill people for money. Anthony demurred. I pray to God to let me walk to kill people. Fred Prater A slender, small man with a raspy voice, he was the next to turn on the Leisures. "I would like to have my health checked." They momentarily lost sight of Michaels' car as it merged with heavy southbound traffic on Interstate 55, but soon caught up with it. They stalked Michaels using a Dodge van they called the "work car" that was registered in a fictitious name. When the scheme failed, they decided to shoot Kornhardt. Many of our leisure activities support adults ages 18 and older. Testifying against this group would be Fred Prater, the ex-LN & P employee who had become a protected government witness. It was near the gasoline tank under the front hood. Despite the increasing returns to college for men, Black women have always graduated from college at higher rates than Black men; and this gap has only increased over the birth cohorts. The media has often conjectured that the marriage, cohabitation, divorce, and fertility behaviors of Millennials are radically different from previous generations. Later that afternoon, David Leisure and Termine in the "work car" and Loewe in another vehicle watched Faheen as he left the Courthouse. Michaels sometimes was accompanied by his brother, Francis, also an official of Local 110. Family Leisure has the largest network of professional pool table installers in the country. The Italians could muster an army from around the country that could quickly quell the rebellion. Along with the changes in education and hours worked, there has been a major change in housework hours as well. Berne and Vitale had driven to Chicago and they had discussed the Michaels and Spica bombings. The judge, without comment, sentenced him to 55 years. A cardboard sign on the dashboard identified the owner. For example, the proportion of births to married women ages 31 to 35 for the Silent generation is 88 percent, which fell to 83 percent for GenX and even further to 75 percent for Millennials. Innes Anderson Although he only had helped in retrieving telephone records and was consulted about wiretapping, David Leisure and Wougamon had confided in him. He was ordered incarcerated for 20 years concurrent with the federal sentence. His killing machine was well honed and it was time to boldly make a preemptory strike. David gave the contract to Robert Carbaugh and Steven Wougamon, also relative newcomers to the outfit. He wanted to cooperate. The federal jury that convicted the Leisures was unable to reach a verdict in charges arising from Kornhardt's murder. Ft. single family home built in 1963 that was last sold on 12/04/2018. There were other reasons to eliminate Michaels. He died several years ago. Debris and oil from the car splattered the van. A state circuit court jury convicted him of two counts of first-degree assault in the shootings of John Michaels and Dennis Day. Again, he impatiently pressed the button, but the bomb underneath the Cordoba failed to detonate. Mariana Odio-Zuniga and Prasanthi Ramakrishnan are PhD candidates at Washington University in St. Louis. Podcasts In 1983, Berne was subpoenaed before a federal grand jury investigating the Spica murder. Shortly after midnight on Sept. 1, 1999 he was given a lethal injection. But he would learn the truth two years later. Mine is even better than his. Paulie Leisure wanted to control St. Louis' underworld and he was prepared to kill anyone who stood in his way. David Leisure had learned where Bobby Peters, who was believed to have been a conspirator in the bombing, worked. All my troubles and everybody's troubles come from them Dagos. It took him only about a minute. For example, the decline in fertility below the replacement rate has led to a major concern for pay-as-you-go social security in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, including the United States. The door always was locked, but a gang member inside would unlock it shortly before the assassination. I knew then that Vitale was snitching to them and telling them I had something to do with Michaels' bombing.". That's the, main thing in the Mafia. He already had brought several Italians into key positions in the union. Trupiano, a nephew of Giordano, was born in Detroit and as one federal investigator stated, "He got messed up in gambling in Detroit and was sent here for some guidance from his uncle.". He once had been close to Giordano and Michaels, but he had come to despise them. The percentage of Black high school dropouts fell from 27.5 percent for the Silent generation to 7.1 percent for the Millennial generation. They had a lot in common because his legs had been amputated. Authorities were surprised at the shooting because Michaels, who had no record, was not involved in the union power struggle. The eight men indicted were Paul Leisure, business agent for Local 42 and part owner of LN & P Company, a towing company owned by the Leisure family; Anthony Leisure, Paul's brother and a business agent for Local 110 and part owner of LN & P; David Leisure, a cousin of Paul and Anthony and a part owner of LN & P, charged with murder and assault; John F. Ramo, an employee of LN & P charged with making the bomb that killed Jimmy Michaels; Ronald J. Broderick, a business agent for Local 110; Charles M. Loewe, a LN & P employee charged with the wounding of Charles John Michaels; Robert M. Carbaugh, a part-time employee of LN & P charged with killing Michael Kornhardt; and finally Steven T. Wougamon also charged with the murder of Kornhardt. Joe Leisure passed away at age 67 years old on April 18, 2005. Paulie Leisure's determination was reflected in a comment recorded later by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. A cousin, Richard, had been killed in a barroom brawl in 1964. But in the absence of any retaliation for almost a year he apparently felt safe. They argued he had diminished mental capacities and that it was his cousins who were the ringleaders. The murder of Kornhardt proved to be the undoing of the Leisure gang. Sold - 11127 Leisure Ln, Saint Louis, MO - $430,000. The ensuing blast cost him his right leg and left foot. Uncategorized If they found a family member, they would torture him to learn the whereabouts of the others. No one knew that except the bombers. They returned to his apartment on the pretense of needing a pair of gloves. "Beans" Michaels III Even before the smoke had cleared in the Leisure War, he was found guilty in October 1982 in U. S. District Court of conspiring to bomb Leisure. Unusual security precautions were used when Michaels was brought to St. Louis Circuit Court from federal prison. Before he was sentenced in federal court, he had one request of the judge. When he was in his pre-teens, they coaxed him into a wooden crate. Moreover, the significant increase in the percentage of women in the workforce has had a considerable effect on the type of benefits employers offer, specifically regarding a family-friendly workplace, parental leave, and other work-family balance policies. He turned on the two-way radio and listened intently for any messages. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, Fourth Quarter 2021, 103(4), pp. Several articles analyze the changes in the family structure, fertility behavior, and the division of labor within the household for older generations (see Eckstein, Keane, and Lifshitz, 2019; Kong, Ravikumar and Vandenbroucke, 2018; and Ramey and Francis, 2009); however, to the best of our knowledge, no study has analyzed these changes in the latest generationMillennialsand how their family, fertility, and labor market behavior compares with that of the previous generations. Anthony then shot Day, injuring him. He's a monster who is on the loose. His grandson, James A. Now, you know that's wrong. Standing erect, his words rambling, he told the judge, "I find it very hard to show compassion for anybody who would blow up my brother and harm my mother whom I consider a saint. "These f------ guys, we'll eat 'em like hamburgers. I wouldn't have done it for a million dollars. I mean, that long distance s---, I never did like it. "Let's hit 'em now. David told Anderson that Norman Peters, whom he believed had killed his brother, Richard, in 1964, was in California and that Bobby Peters might be in telephone contact. Enable a family (no more than 2 adults and 4 children) enjoy hands-on exhibits. Loewe took the bomb in his car, gave it to Leisure and left. In the article, we assign the generations the following names and birth cohorts: Focusing on labor markets and education decisions, we find that the wage-age profile has been shifting down over generations, with Millennial men having the lowest real wages over the life cycle (up to age 33) so far. Two and a half years later, as the trial of the Leisures began in U. S. District Court a block away he pleaded guilty in state court of conspiracy to commit capital murder. 6-footer who weighed 270 pounds with a propensity for violence, in the local as an organizer. I'm motivated because I wanna go out and kill." Retribution, indeed, had been swift. Paulie Leisure had a convoluted concept of the contemporary mob maxim of "make money, not war." Trupiano's health deteriorated in prison. The van lurched to avoid it, careening through the smoke and debris that showered down on it. Second, this article compares leisure over generations and the life cycle, while they do not. He died not long afterwards. Over the past half-century, some of the most striking socioeconomic changes in developed countries have been the radical changes in the family structure, fertility behavior, and the division of labor within the household. Lastly, with declining marriage rates, the key question of what predicts partner choice is analyzed using a multinomial logit model. But Anthony, as assistant business manager, was the real power. Standing erect, his words rambling, he told the judge, "I find it very hard to show compassion for anybody who would blow up my brother and harm my mother whom I consider a saint. Marriott St. Louis Grand. He knew also that Faheen, chief deputy clerk of the St. Louis Circuit Court, drove a Volkswagen. Schoolaro, a scholarship finder website, released the report earlier this month, ranking. Wougamon said he would consult Paulie Leisure. Not long after the Michaels' bombing, Leisure, like some of his soldiers, had installed a remote starter in his car. While in City Jail, he bragged to a turnkey he had known for years that he had the bomb in his car the day of the bombing. Anthony Leisure Like his brother, he showed no contrition at sentencing. He remained a fugitive for 19 months before surrendering while under indictment on federal explosive charges. Michaels' body, severed at the waist, was hurled to the pavement like a rag doll. Regions A few days after Paulie Leisure was bombed Vitale summoned Stoneking to his house. He won't live till tomorrow. I knew thisall my life. St. Louis, MO 63122 314-822-8900 www.magichouse.org Emerson Free Family Nights every third Friday of the month from 5:30 pm to 9:00 pm. They have been murderers all their lives." POTOSI, Mo. Steven Wougamon He was found guilty of the same charges by the federal jury and was sentenced to 46 years in prison. Interview Nattily dressed with flowing white hair, mustache and a Roman nose, his gentle disposition set him apart from other gangsters. Information for this article was obtained from stories published in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch by this reporter and others and from other sources. A deafening boom sounded and a plume of orange flame and black smoke erupted from the Cordoba. The St. Louis Syrian Mob War Timeline: Leisure Clan Took Shot At Brass Ring In Early-1980s Blood Feud - The Gangster Report Featured Mafia Mafia Insider Mob Hits The St. Louis Syrian Mob War Timeline: Leisure Clan Took Shot At Brass Ring In Early-1980s Blood Feud 6 years ago Scott Burnstein You are unauthorized to view this page. If your word's good you're reputable.". He was questioned specifically about that conversation. Despite his insistence that he had told nothing, Wougamon refused to believe him. I feel that the execution of David would bring additional needless hardship, not only to his family, but to my family as well.". Leisure and his minions discussed who should be killed to re-establish their authority. Located on Washington Avenue near the convention center in downtown St. Louis, this Marriott hotel offers plenty of amenities to keep guests satisfied. 103, No. Journey to the top of the Gateway Arch, discover our unique neighborhoods, take a historic tour of Civil War sites, sample the wares of local craft breweries . ", of your business. In another twist, Michael E. Kornhardt, charged with the murder of George Faheen, was killed on July 31, 1982 while free on bond. Innes Anderson, the telephone repairman, later described how the hit came down as told to him the next day by Wougamon, his brother-in-law. Massud, now that his mentor was dead, would stay on for the time being. "They would wind the crate up in the air and let me swing for a while. For Faheen's death, he was sentenced to life imprisonment without parole. In state court, Leisure was convicted on two counts of capital murder one in the death of Faheen, the other in the bombing of Michaels. Urban explorer, die-hard sports fan, aficionado of family funno matter what type of traveler you are, you'll find what you're looking for, it's all in a day's fun in St. Louis. Kornhardt stayed in the car while Leisure attached the bomb to Faheen's Volkswagen. Usergen He was sentenced to 40 years on several charges. Steven Wougamon. In August 1982, he invoked the Fifth Amendment before a federal grand jury investigating the violence. Paul John "Paulie" Leisure, a Syrian who was a suspected contract killer, headed a small dissident, but deadly, group of gangsters. For his part, he was sentenced to 16 years to run concurrently with a 16-year term in Illinois for burglary. One night Broderick, Anthony and David Leisure followed "Beans" from the club, but he eluded them. "I told them to get off my property. Marriage (and, thus, fertility) has seen many drastic changes over generations. Even before the smoke had cleared in the Leisure War, he was found guilty in October 1982 in U. S. District Court of conspiring to bomb Leisure. Make 'em feel every bit of it." Midwest On the other hand, up to Boomers-1, White men graduated from college at higher rates than White women; this gap reversed in Boomers-2 and has continued to increase over generations (see Goldin, Katz, and Kuziemko, 2006; Murnane, 2013; Blau and Kahn, 2017; and Eckstein, Keane, and Lifshitz, 2019), with Millennials having the biggest gap between White men and White women. They dragged the body into a nearby ditch and threw the gun in a cornfield. Like Schepp, he went into hiding shortly after the Leisure bombing. The source also had told him about the "war room" before a warrant was obtained and executed for its search. Tell my children, family and relatives I love them.". His outfit would unleash all the fury it had at its disposal and conceive innovative ways to kill. He then attacked the FBI for failing to warn him that he would be bombed. "He was just standing there and I just shot him. He was sentenced to five years. On July 22, 2000 Paul Leisure died at the United States Medical Center for Federal Prisoners in Springfield, Missouri where he had been incarcerated since 1993. Leisure, who was 56, suffered from heart disease. He wanted to know if I was interested. Other comments overheard indicated that Italian-American businessmen kept him at arms length, and mob families cheated him out of money from the sale of a hotel in Las Vegas. Hits he and his minions discussed who should be killed to re-establish their authority at new! Leisure asked him to take a ride with them and telling them I something... Received by an employee of the month from 5:30 pm to 9:00.! Of our Leisure activities support adults ages 18 and older Leisure wanted to the. Of Black high school dropouts fell from 27.5 percent for the FBI bomb threat received! ) enjoy hands-on exhibits of amenities to keep guests satisfied by it m. Charles Lowe the... 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